Welcome to Bedini Technology


We at Bedini Technology, Inc. have been developing Energy Systems since the early 1970's. We have openly shared many of our discoveries on the pages of this website. It is becoming increasingly clear that a growing number of people are using ideas from this website, and infringing on my patents without even the courtesy of giving me credit.

We will explain the BTI Negative Resistor, a timed, cycling, Collecting, and flash-charging process which allows a complete analysis for all the Energy in Nature's Vacuum. This Process has been discovered by several individuals and was labeled by Nikola Tesla as Radiant Energy. For simplicity, the process will be produced in a common lead acid storage ( Collecting ) battery being flash-charged as a Negative Resistor. First we will explain the background necessary for understanding the process of this natural, classically ignored phenomena.


An "Open" thermodynamic System, such as a windmill, exchanges Energy within Nature's Active Vacuum Environment. Such Systems are dynamic, and experience positive changes in their own Potential Energy as more Vacuum wind Energies are exchanged. This true balance of Natural Equilibrium is capable of "flash-charging" its Source and simultaneously powering a load, like unto a pump driven by a paddlewheel which provides the water to run its own Source's paddlewheel and also a generator.

The Open System re-orders its own equilibrium while a Natural Environment is sustained. It can self-oscillate or self-exchange, providing more Energy ( Output ) than the Source ( Input ) was considered by classical theory as capable of supplying. It is noteworthy to distinguish the difference between what is only considered a governing law, and that Natural Reality which actually governs the Dipole. The Open System has the potential to sustain a Natural Equilibrium Environment while furnishing "Free ( previously not metered ) Energy." Like the windmill, an Open Source of this type can power not only itself, but also, simultaneously, a load. There are unique, controllable circumstances which create a Source Dipole exhibiting what is called �negentropy,� or what appears in classical theory to be a Negative Resistor. That is, what were previously considered the limits for Energy Potential are increased with an ever-present, EM Energy, and this Energy's Source is enhanced by an "Exchange" within the Natural Vacuum Operating Environment. For example, the windmill's energy capacity is increased as more Vacuum wind Energy is moved. If you do not store the Energy created by the blowing wind, the increases of Vacuum EM Energy are lost. If a tree falls in the forest, and no one is there to hear it, does the falling tree make any sound?

In relation to this new vision of electrical Systems, we can regard the windmill as a Negative Resistor since it accepts an exchange of unusable Vacuum wind Energy from an EM Energy environment and transforms it as shaft horsepower to provide both more wind and power a generator. In other words, a Negative Resistor is created by a Dipole, which Opens an environmental exchange where EM Energy, is transduced ( re-ordered ) by a higher level of Natural Equilibrium, and this "New" process provides greater degrees of usable Energy that go well beyond sustaining the System's own Source.

For over 100 years, classical ( conventional ) electrical systems have been designed to satisfy laws generally accepted in classical theories as guidelines for accurate perceptions which govern System requirements. What classical theory is ignoring are the realities that a System can utilize a symmetrical exchange with the Active Vacuum Environment. Classical designs are not in equilibrium with the Active Vacuum Environment and are, therefore, inefficient because they either consume more Energy than they exchange with the Vacuum, or they return a greater amount of Energy to the Vacuum than they actually need to be consuming. With conventional types of systems, we supply the additional energy required to cover what we now know are unnecessary "conventional system" losses. A ratio of Output / Input gives conventional Systems a Coefficient Of Performance, ( or COP ) that is less than one. Conventional systems are referred to as �underunity� because they are not in Natural Equilibrium with the Active Vacuum Environment.

Nearly 50 years ago, particle physicists discovered that classical perceptions for the Active Vacuum Symmetry in conventional electrical systems were in error, and the Symmetry can be broken. So a sort of �windmill� electrical System, in a Vacuum Energized wind, is permitted. Such a System could recharge itself and power a load with the Vacuum Energy ignored by classical EE. Wu and his colleagues, and Lee as well, received Nobel Prizes for this and related work. Prigogine later received a Nobel Prize for his contributions to such System's concepts. However, Electrical Engineers are still designing systems with 136 year old EE theories which have not been changed to reflect greater degrees of particle physics knowledge. The classical theories do not account for research verifying usable EM Energy can be extracted from the Active Vacuum. Engineers continue designing electrical power systems in a classical way that cannot sustain the True, Natural, Equilibrium.

A Dipole - simply an imperceptible cycle allowing a Natural Equilibrium Exchange of electron and ion charges - is always present when the Vacuum Energy Symmetry is broken. As such, a Dipole Opens a Natural Vacuum Energy Exchange Potential by providing the Negative Resistor required for EM Energy to flow in a Natural Exchange. The Greater Potential ( i.e., voltage ) between the electron and ion charges of a Dipole is the result of a novel EM Vacuum Energy Exchange, as shown by Whittaker in 1903. Vacuum Energy � in the complex plane, known as �Reactive Power� by engineers � can be cyclically exchanged through the Dipole. An acknowledgment of the Dipole allows a transformation from the Reactive EM Energy into usable electrical Power. This massive pulse of gushing EM Vacuum Energy continues only while the Dipole is present. We only �pay� for initially establishing each Dipole Cycle. In further explanation, Dipoles exist in nature and can be not only recreated, but cyclically controlled to extract a Natural Vacuum Energy which classical science blindly declares does not exist.

Batteries and generators do not power their attached circuits! The shaft energy of a generator, and the chemical energy produced in a battery are ALL expended in the internal energy required to separate the Dipole charges, which are ignored by conventional theory, apart, negating the Source Dipole. This is ALL classical designs allow batteries and generators to do. These designs do not place a single watt of power on the external circuit, nor do they power any load. Instead, as verified by Whittaker�s work in 1903, the Dipole receives Vacuum Energy during Relaxation Time, or the Transient Phase, transduces the EM Vacuum Energy into real Power, and continuously pours EM Energy around the "Space" ( or Vacuum ) of the circuit in an Open Vacuum exchange. The circuit intercepts a tiny bit of that Vacuum Energy flow, and powers the load. Every electrical load and circuit is powered by electrical Energy extracted from the Vacuum. All electrical loads have always been powered by this obscure, ignored Vacuum Energy.

All the hydrocarbons ever burned, all the fuel rods ever used, all the dams ever built to turn generator shafts, etc. have not added a single watt to the power line. All these enormous efforts have done nothing more than extinguish Dipoles. Sadly, our engineers have always designed systems that ignore the Dipole Potential to both flash-charge the Source, and also power the load. So, with these archaic systems in place, we continue to burn fuel, build nuclear power plants, etc., just to continually remake and destroy the Dipoles ignored by classical systems. Simply put, the classical laws are not the most efficient way to run Nature's railroad.

The Bedini process repeatedly produces a nearly Free Negative Resistor inside a battery or other Energy Collector. Once the timing sequence is established for the Negative Resistor as a Collector, a larger blast of EM Energy leaps from the Vacuum to flash-charge the battery and also power the circuit with the excess Energy. In summary, the Source's battery is recharged and the load is powered simultaneously.


The Bedini process cyclically produces a Negative Resistor inside a Source ( battery or other System storage device ) for Free, or nearly so. In the short moment a Negative Resistor is established, the Vacuum Energy leaps from the Vacuum to the battery, which is flash-charged with what classical theories identify as "Free Energy." The battery is recharged and the load is powered simultaneously.

A typical System approach is to power the System from one battery, while a second battery or group of them are flash-charged through the Negative Resistor process. Then the powering battery is switched out and the load powered from one of the other batteries, so that the current Source battery can be flash-charged very rapidly.

Iteration keeps all batteries charged while continuously powering the load. A typical DC output may be converted to standard AC in an ordinary DC to AC inverter, e.g. to power one�s car, home, business, or neighborhood. The Bedini process will give birth to very different, decentralized electrical power System taking their electrical Energy directly from the Natural Vacuum System.

Here we illustrate the enormous amount of Energy that any Dipole actually preserves Energy Exchanges within the Vacuum's Natural Energy Potential.

Here is a conductor ( wire ) attached to the terminal of a generator or battery. A large EM wave surrounds the wire, out to an infinite radial distance. This shows the enormous Energy flow that is pouring from the terminals. This is real EM Power. As can be seen, most of the Vacuum Energy circumvents the circuit entirely, and is just wasted. This illustrates how electrons bounce around in a wire, come to the surface, and intercept a tiny portion of the EM Energy flow � much like placing your hand out the window of a moving car to divert ( exchange ) a small portion of air ( Energy ) to the interior of another System. Only a tiny bit of classical energy flow is utilized to power the electrons in the wire, produce current, and power the circuit. The Vacuum is ignored. As can now be seen, every circuit has always been powered by the little bit captured from an enormous EM Vacuum Energy flow. The entire amount of EM Energy flow can be extracted from the Vacuum Energy by employing the laws which govern the Source Dipole.

In this animation we show how EM Energy is received by the Dipole from Vacuum Energy during Relaxation Time. The charges then transform their Vacuum Energy Exchange into real usable power and pour it out profusely. An enormous flow of real EM Energy results. We must have a Collector which intercepts that gushing Energy flow, and can dissipate the Collected Energy in a load. As can be seen, if we make the Dipole stronger, we increase the Energy flow. If we diminish and destroy the dipole, we diminish and then destroy the EM Energy gushing from the Vacuum Energy. So, then, we are resigned to pay for cyclically restoring the destroyed Dipole.

This animation illustrates how the Bedini process forms a Negative Resistor in a battery, which both extracts and furnishes cycled Vacuum Energy. The electron current can only move between the outside of the plates and out through the external circuit. Between the plates, a very heavy lead ion current sluggishly moves. A pulse of electrons is reflected by a pile up on the edge of the plates, pushing the lead ions in a flash-charging mode.

The ions being collected move more slowly ( see "Relaxation Time" ), so the electrons continue to pile up. The density of the electron pile up produces a sudden, large, "Dipolar Potential." As we have shown, this Dipolarity produces a sudden blast of a much greater potential than the Source's initial Electron Energy. At the same time, the blast of EM Ion Energy also travels into the external Vacuum circuit, to power the load. In short, each momentary cycle of this 12-volt Source is freely converted to a potential of 100 Volts. The power available has been increased by a factor of 8, or more.

As a pulse of electron pile-up potential is cut off, the well-known Lenz law reaction is evoked. This momentarily squeezes the electron pile-up even more, suddenly raising the already increased potential to 400 Volts. This increases the power available by an additional factor of ~ 4. So the generator as a Source now has ~ 32 times more power than the original battery Source. The collection of excess Energy Potential allows a flash-charging of the battery, as it also powers the external circuit ( the load ). The Natural System Exchange is Open in this situation, and receives a great surge of EM Energy from pulsed exchanges with the Vacuum Energy. This Open transfer of what appears in classical theories as "Free," or Excess Dipole Energy resulting of the Dipole acting as if the Collector were, truly, a Negative Resistor. As an analogy, we have converted the System into a �windmill� and triggered a a Natural Vacuum Exchange to provide a very powerful series of wind movements to power the windmill.

This animation shows the operation of a typical Bedini Power System driving a rotary motor ( center ) and charging a bank of batteries ( top ) from a battery ( bottom right ). The Negative Resistor process ( shown by the bubbles ) in the battery at the left is continually triggered. The "Energy" is used to further trigger the Negative Resistor process in each battery in the bank at the top. An AC to DC inverter is connected to the battery bank, so that standard AC power is output to the normal electrical wiring system of the house, office, etc. As can be seen, the Battery and flash-charging Systems are used to extract what is classically known as excess Vacuum Energy, collect it, and invert it to a usable form of AC for powering the house, while the motor is, simultaneously, being powered. In addition, the precise timing and switching sequences for the flash-charging of the System with Vacuum Energy is mechanically built into a motor system.

This animation shows how the motor/timer/switcher can be arranged in banks to dramatically increase the shaft horsepower. At the same time, additional banks of batteries or other accumulator ( Collector ) can be continually charged, so that an entire neighborhood or a large office building can be powered by the System's larger DC to AC inverter ( not shown ). The output can power any shaft horsepower load required; automobiles, trucks, trains, boats, etc.

This automation shows a Bedini Power System installed in a typical home. The batteries are utilized as Negative Resistors ( accumulator, or Collector ). A standard DC to AC inverter is also powered, so that standard AC power is furnished to the main power panel of the home. the usual home appliances and loads are powered in normal fashion. This home is immune to power outages from storms, blown transformers, substation failures, brownouts, or blackouts. Everything is powered by electrical Energy obtained directly from the Active Vacuum.

In this segment we show an actual lab test model that demonstrates the principles of the Bedini process. The main battery is here ( point ) and you can see the motor here. The motor is doing work by operating a fan blade and pumping air. An Accumulator ( or Collector ) is located here ( point ) in which Energy from the proprietary Bedini transformer ( point ) is being cumulatively Collected eight times for each revolution. Once per revolution, precise switching ( point ) discharges the Collector to flash-charge the secondary battery ( point ). In this arrangement, we show prove our principles by continuously doing work ( pumping air ) while keeping the secondary battery charged. Periodically the batteries are switched and the former primary battery is charged. The excess energy comes directly from the active Vacuum Energy, through the Negative Resistor in the battery created by the Bedini Process.

Another principle shown by this System is the superpolarity of the magnetic motor ( point ). The magnets all have north poles pointing outward. The compression and repulsion in the middle of any two poles creates a north pole whose field strength is several times larger than the field strength from each magnet. Thus we have formed eight �phantom poles,� to dramatically increase the Field Energy Density in the magnetic field where the special transformer ( point ) Collects additional Energy ( point ) from the superpole flux cutting one of the coils, eight times per revolution of the rotor.

The System demonstrates not only that additional Energy is being obtained, but the Vacuum Energy is being collected in several places and different ways, in a proprietary accumulator transformer, and then used to form a very powerful and sudden Negative Resistor in the Battery ( point ).

This charges the battery with additional Energy from the Vacuum as previously explained. The electrical energy needs of the world are increasing exponentially. At the same time, the world�s capacity to provide oil is peaking and will be gradually decrease, while becoming ever more expensive to obtain. The easily foreseeable results are first a looming world energy crisis, followed by a worldwide economic crisis as prices of transportation, goods, etc. increase. The Bedini Negative Resistor process can resolve these crisis'. With Bedini Systems and technology, the increasing need for oil can be blunted and controlled, so that the economy levels off while at the same time additional electrical power is provided as needed.

BTI Processes and Systems pose no threat to the environment. By blunting and leveling hydrocarbon combustion to produce the increasing electrical power needed, these BTI Systems will dramatically reduce the environmental pollution and damage that would otherwise occur. The processes produce clean electrical power, do not require rivers, special conditions for windmills and solar cells, hydrocarbon combustion, or nuclear fuel rod consumption. The BTI Systems can be placed anywhere on earth, beneath the earth, in space, or under the ocean�s surface. They will provide clean, cheap electrical energy anywhere, anytime, everywhere, and every time with no detrimental impact to the environment. In addition, their natural decentralization eliminates failure of entire power grids or large sections of it, whether the cause is natural or manmade.

BTI is currently working on additional designs that will produce more power on demand and quite flexibly. These Systems are adaptable to almost any electrical power System application, from pumping water, powering high speed turbines, etc. The potential advantages of replacing almost every inefficient electrical motor with a regenerative System are obvious. Most industrial and consumer applications can be met by Bedini Systems, more economically, cleaner, cheaper, and far more efficiently. Compared to other systems, a BTI Power System will always use less and produce more in the same application, and do it cleanly and without pollution.

The company has been granted patent protection and the Bedini Processes are patented. Worldwide protection is in process and will be diligently maintained during the patent process. BTI will also be filing many additional patents as the technology further develops to extend and complement the two processes. 


You have witnessed what we at BTI believe to be the dawn of a revolutionary new age of efficient and clean electric power. Producing energy at a fraction of its present cost, dependably and reliably, and doing it easily and anywhere, will revolutionize the present systems with their wastes and pollution. BTI Power Systems will provide a never-ending Source for electrical power and energy so desperately needed by all the peoples and nations of the earth. Providing and maintaining a secure, safe, clean future of plentiful electrical power is our goal and hopefully yours as well.


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The Tom Bearden Free Energy Collector Principle

In the paper, "The Final Secret of Free Energy" published February 9, 1993: "The Final Secret of Free Energy" wrote in February 9, 1993, Tom Bearden describes the principles of a device able to tap Free Energy from the Poynting Energy S-Flow in the Vacuum during the short Transient Phase ( the relaxation time in a conductor ) when a Source is connected to a resistive load. In this paper, I am trying to clarify the basic concept of this principle.

Tom Bearden claims that when a Source Dipole is connected to a resistive load, the most important part of the principle is the information transferred to the load at the speed of light by the S-Flow. The S-Flow is pure EM Energy flowing through space, outside the conductor. The S-Flow is the essence of a Natural Equlibrium. This Energy is Free and only this Transient Phase Energy can be used as a "Free Lunch". Just after the switch is closed, there is a very short period ( Transient Phase ) before current begins flowing in the circuit. This Transient Phase is also named the Relaxation Time. In copper, the Relaxation Time is incredibly rapid, There are ~1.5 x 10-19 seconds before current flows in the Permanent Phase, and the circuit both consumes Power from the Source and, therefore, dissipates Energy by Joule's Effect, The Permanent Phase of Energy consumption is NOT employed by our System.

So, according to Tom Bearden, the tapping of Free Energy begins with intentions to charge a " Collector " during a Source's Relaxation Time, and then transfer ( or Switch ) the " Collector " from the " Source " to a common resistive load, just before the end of the Relaxation Time of the Charging circuit, and before electrons flow.

We took some EM Energy density ( a chunk of Potential gradient, a "voltage" before current flows ) from the Source, and trapped ( or isolated it ) by switching that Potential gradient ( Energy Density, which is expressed in Joules per coulomb ) onto a Collector ( containing a certain number of captured coulombs ) where the Potential gradient activates/potentializes/couples/accumulates as non-powering, transducing electrons. So the finite Collector collects a finite amount of pulsed, excess Energy [ Joules/coulomb x collected ( isolated ) coulombs ] on its now excited beyond their Relaxation Time, ( activated/potentialized/coupled/accumulated/Collected ) free electrons. Then, before any current actually flows from the Source, we switch that potentialized Collector ( a temporary storage for the isolated, potentialized electrons ) containing a finite amount of "Free" EM Energy ) away from the Source and directly across the load. Shortly thereafter, the Relaxation Time in the Collector expires. The Potentialized electrons in the Collector are freed to move in the external load circuit, consisting of the Collector and the load, and so they do so. >>

says Tom Bearden.

For the Collector it is necessary to use a conductive material which has a longer Relaxation Time than copper. This is only for the electronic circuit design and the limitation of its components. So, Tom Bearden has used " a Degenerate Semiconductor " which has a Relaxation Time of ~ 1 ms. The Collector is made with 98% Aluminum and 2% Iron.

<< Degenerate semiconductor :

<<Relaxation Time :

  • A conductor contains large number of loosely bound electrons which we call free electrons or conduction electrons. The remaining material is collection of heavy positive ions called lattice. These ions keeps on vibrating about their mean positions. The average amplitude of vibration depends upon temperature. Occasionally, a free electron collides interacts in some other fashion with the lattice. The speed and direction of electron changes randomly at each such event. As a result electrons moves in a zig-zag path....The average time between two successive collisions in a conductor is called the Relaxation Time. ( see at : http://www.schooljunction.com/current.htm ) >>

The Bearden's Collector is charged by using a Stepwise Charging method with a ramp voltage generator, this is commonly used in high efficiency and low power consumption CMOS systems which use an Adiabatic Charging method ( see Charge Recycling Clocking for Adiatbatic Style Logic by Luns Tee, Lizhen Zheng. ) With this Stepwise Charging method, very little Energy is required for charging the Collector. If the Collector is a common capacitor the efficiency is nearly 100%. With the Bearden's Collector, this method is used only for transferring the potential.

The ramp duration of the voltage must be less than the Relaxation Time of the Collector used. So, there is no current flow in the circuit ( dQ/dt ~ 0 ) during the timed, Collector charging sequence. When the Collector is fully charged, all the free electrons are "potentialized", they have their own kinetic Energy gained by the potential produced only by the S-Flow. The next step is to use these "potentialized electrons" by switching the Collector circuit from the Source to powering the Load, now, the Collector acts as a Free Source of Energy, it acts as a Dipole energized by only the S-Flow of the original Source ( V1 in the diagram below).....

( This diagram has been updated on July 11, 2001 according to the latest comments from Tom Bearden ( see below ) )

"Relaxation Time: The time it takes for the free electrons in a conductor (or material) to reach the skin of the wire after potential is applied, is, of course, called the Relaxation Time. During that time, the free electrons in the gas are "trapped" insofar as producing ( current dissipation of the potential) is concerned. However, immediately after the Relaxation Time ends, current begins and dissipation of the trapped Energy begins.
"In copper, the Relaxation Time is incredibly rapid. It's about 1.5 x 10-19 sec. However, in quartz it is about 10 days! So as you can see, we need to get somewhere in between these two values, and so we will have to "mix" or "dope" materials. We must get a sufficiently long Relaxation Time so that we can switch and Collect comfortably in Cycle One, then switch into Cycle Two for dispersion of the freely collected Energy in the Collector. However, the Relaxation Time we get must also be short enough to allow quick discharge in the load, as soon as we switch the primary source away from the Collector. Actually, we need a degenerate semiconductor material instead of plain copper."

Tom Bearden

"It is my hope that, with this short description, I have been able to clarify a bit of Tom Bearden's " Final Secret of Free Energy. Now, only a real working device will prove if his claim can be more than a simple overunity dream...

Source documents :

Thomas Bearden Answers Jerry Decker on Free Energy


I only have time every so many weeks to try to answer such questions. I'll take some time to try to give you a complete answer, but do not wish to enter into protracted discussions etc. I'm on a very reduced schedule anyway, because of the illness, and so only have a little time to spare at infrequent intervals.

You will never have the answer to the true Negative Resistor problem or understand it, until you read the physics literature and study something beside standard classical electrodynamics and electrical engineering. Those disciplines and models completely forbid any Coefficient Of Performance>1.0 System ( COP>1.0 ), and any true Negative Resistor is, therefore, a COP = infinity System. SO WHAT MUST BE CHANGED OR MODIFIED IN Classical EE MODELS, IF ONE IS TO EVEN HAVE A COP>1.0 SYSTEM AT ALL? Anyone who is not struggling with that problem, has no business calling himself in the "Free Energy field". He's not. He's automatically in the "Well, it's not in conventional EE, so I can't understand it" field.

EE is based on a very archaic and seriously flawed model that does not permit COP>1.0 circuits and Systems. Much better electrodynamics models have long been available in particle physics -- for the simple reason that the standard EE does not adequately describe Nature.

The answer to many of your questions and speculations are already there in particle physics, and have been for a long time. But one has to read the physics literature. Sadly, most of the "Free Energy" community will not read the literature, will not go look up and read a cited reference or quotation, etc. and try to understand it. So there exists a "mindset" in the Free Energy community, which largely regurgitates classical electrodynamics and standard electrical engineering, BOTH MODELS specifically prohibiting (or ignoring) COP>1.0 EM Systems in the first place! As an example, to do COP>1.0 in an EM circuit, that circuit has to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Where is the discussion in the "Free Energy" community about that, and how to do it? Further, it has to violate the standard closed-current-loop circuit, and it has to violate the arbitrary Lorentz symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations. Where are the fruitful discussions of the methods for doing those two things?

Well, most do not LIKE such areas. Sorry, but those are the areas that one must grapple with, if one wishes to grapple with overunity processes and mechanisms. If the gold is on the right side of the fence and one persists in looking only on the left side, one should not be surprised that he never finds the gold. We have to take physics as it comes on its own terms. We simply cannot dictate what the physics "ought to be", but only try to find out "what it is". One can point out answers and the exact citations from physics, and we've done that in spades. Then if the community still will not deviate from CEM and EE, and will not discuss the technical requirements for a COP>1.0 System, then all further discussions with the community are useless. Yet strangely, those who have never even seen an Overunity System or circuit, much less tested one, seem to assume that they already completely understand the entire field that is not yet even a field. Merely because they understand CEM or electrical engineering!

When I wrote the paper on how Bedini is able to generate a true Negative Resistor at the boundary ( inner surface of the plates) inside a battery, for the conference that year in Russia, I specifically asked the Russian scientists to first subject the paper and its explanation to rigorous analysis, to find if there were any flaws. After that refereeing check was performed by some excellent Russian scientists, the answer came back that the paper was okay and would stand up, and was recommended for publication. Whereupon I submitted the paper to them for presentation in absentia, and for publication in the proceedings.

You are aware, I think, that there is no real contiguous closed electron current loop in a battery powered circuit, contrary to the standard circuit diagram. Instead, there are two very different current half-loops:

(1) the ion current between the plates, completely internal to the battery, and

(2) the electron current half loop, from the outside of one plate through the external circuit to the outside of the other plate. The mass per unit charge of the lead ions in a battery is enormously greater ( several hundred thousand times greater ) than the mass per unit charge of the electrons. So the electrons respond much faster than the sluggish ions. Ergo, one can readily dephase the two currents, because of the sluggishness of the ions compared to the rapidity of the electrons. Piece of cake, with the proper timing.

Now to pause: suppose you set a "scalar" potential upon the middle of a transmission line. It doesn't sit there like a "scalar" entity at all! Instead, it takes off in both directions simultaneously, like two scalded hogs, nearly at the speed of light. It potentializes the charges in one direction almost instantly and it also potentializes the charge in the other direction almost instantly. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE CHARGES TO THE LEFT HAVE A FORCE TO THE LEFT CREATED ON THEM, AND THE CHARGES TO THE RIGHT HAVE A FORCE TO THE RIGHT CREATED ON THEM. If you catch the ions in the charging mode, you can thus reverse the electron current in the external circuit with overpotentialized electrons, while simultaneously overpotentializing the ions in charging mode. This means that excess Energy is delivered to powering the external circuit, while excess Energy is simultaneously delivered to the ions in charging mode. It's as simple as that.

Microwave switching engineer Bill Nelson and engineer Ron Cole had absolutely no difficulty in reproducing the Bedini process in the 1980s. Neither did Jim Watson, who later developed and demonstrated an 8 KW Version.

Now suppose you suddenly place a potential on the surface of the plates ( between the two plates ) of a battery. That potential takes off like a scalded hog in both directions. It flows across the ions in the battery between the plates in one direction, and simultaneously it flows out into the external circuits to "push the charges" in the other direction.

In short, if you time things correctly, you can DEPHASE and DECOUPLE the two currents in the Battery powered Overunity System, simultaneously adding "Free" Potential Energy to both of them. You can add potential to BOTH the ions and the electrons. The ions can be moving backward in charging mode, while the electrons will be driven in the opposite direction in the external circuit --- in powering direction.

Before one gets bent out of shape about the potential being regauging, and Free additional Potential Energy and all that, one should go look up what the "gauge freedom" axiom of quantum field theory means. All electrodynamicists --- and even the electrical engineers --- assume that the Potential Energy of any Maxwellian System can be freely changed at will. However, they usually assume you will be a gentleman and do it twice, simultaneously, and will also do it exactly, so that the two new free EM Forces produced in the System are equal and opposite. Well, that assumes that you take in free, excess Potential Energy to the system, but precisely lock it up so that it cannot translate electrons and therefore push current and do work both on the Source and in an external load. However, it continuously performs what is called "internal work" in the System, and that work is in opposing directions but equal magnitudes. That work continually forms and maintains excess "Stress Energy" in the system, and that is all.

So the first problem for a COP>1.0 System is how to break up that "Stress Energy Only" assumption. John's way is one way. He actually "splits" the potential into two directional fields ( which it is; see Whittaker 1903, cited in numerous of my papers ), one going in one direction to push the ions in charging mode, and the other going in the other direction out into the external circuit to push electrons in powering mode.

That's about as simple as it can be explained. At that point, one either understands it or one doesn't.

Also, bear in mind that from any nonzero scalar potential phi, regardless of how small in magnitude, you can collect as much Energy as you wish, if you just have enough charge capacity available to intercept it. That's the simple equation (w = phi)q, where W is the amount of Energy Collected in joules from potential phi, by charges, q, in coulombs. For a given phi and a desired w, just include the necessary q. A potential is a set of bidirectional Rivers exchanging Energy in Equilibrium, as proven by Whittaker in 1903. We do not have to REPROVE that at all; it's already well known and accepted by every electrodynamicist worth his salt.

Any potential is automatically a true Negative Resistor, since it is a free harmonic set of bidirectional flows of EM Energy ( due to its Dipolarity and the broken symmetry of same; it takes the Energy right out of the Vacuum via the broken symmetry of the Source charge or Dipolarity ). Hence you can collect as much Vacuum Energy from it as you wish, from its "flowing Rivers of Vacuum Energy", if you arrange enough storage ( buckets ) to collect the charges ( the water ). Nothing says you have to use just one kind of charge ( the electron ). You can use -- as Bedini does -- both the ions between the plates and the electrons in the external ( Vacuum ) circuit. And you can use them both, and potentialize them both, simultaneously, within the same potential. HOW MUCH EXCESS ENERGY YOU CATCH IN BOTH DIRECTIONS DEPENDS SOLELY ON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE phi AND THE MAGNITUDE OF THE Q's.

There's no mystery as to how he makes a Negative Resistor, because ANY AND EVERY DIPOLARITY AND POTENTIAL ARE ALREADY TRUE NEGATIVE RESISTOR, as also is every charge when in equilibrium. The Energy flows are coming freely from the Vacuum Energy, via the proven ( in particle physics, NOT in EE ) Broken Symmetry of the Source charge and Source Dipole. Remember, the first requirement for an overunity System or true Negative Resistor is TO GET OUT OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. If one cannot think outside those boxes, one will never get or understand overunity, because IT IS COMPLETELY OUTSIDE THOSE TWO BOXES.

Every charge in the universe is already a true Negative Resistor of the purest and most definitive ( and easily demonstrated experimentally ) kind. It freely absorbs virtual photons from the seething Vacuum Energy, transduces them into OBSERVABLE ( real, detectable, usable ) photons, and pours them out in all directions in 3-space at the speed of light. One doesn't have to reprove that; it's been proven in physics since 1957.

You want to make a true MACROSCOPIC Negative Resistor for peanuts? Just lay a charged capacitor on a permanent magnet so that the E field of the cap is at right angles to the H-field of the magnet. That optimizes EXH, which is the expression for the Poynting Energy flow S = f(EXH). That silly thing sits there and steadily pours out real observable usable EM Energy EXH at the speed of light, with no OBSERVABLE Electromagnetic Energy input into it. The fact that it is a continuous flow of Energy is usually just "mumbled away"; e.g., with some version of this quotation: "[ Poynting's result ] implies that a charged capacitor in a constant magnetic field which is not parallel to the electric field as the seat of Energy flows even though all macroscopic phenomena are static." [Jed Z. Buchwald, From Maxwell to Microphysics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1985, p. 44.]

Before one falls for that "static" nonsense, one must understand what "static" really is. That's expressed beautifully by Van Flandern, as follows: "To retain causality, we must distinguish two distinct meanings of the term 'static'. One meaning is unchanging in the sense of no moving parts. The other meaning is sameness from moment to moment by continual replacement of all moving parts. We can visualize this difference by thinking of a waterfall. A frozen waterfall is static in the first sense, and a flowing waterfall is static in the second sense. Both are essentially the same at every moment, yet the latter has moving parts capable of transferring momentum, and is made of entities that propagate. [Tom Van Flandern, "The speed of gravity - What the experiments say," Physics Letters A, Vol. 250, Dec. 21, 1998, p.8-9. ]

From the Whittaker papers of 1903 and 1904, we have known for just about a century that all static EM Fields and Potentials are in fact "static" fields of Van Flandern's second kind --- analogous to an unfrozen waterfall. There is a continuous bidirectional movement of an internal EM structure of longitudinal waves inside ( and comprising ) all EM Fields and Potentials. So the "static envelope" of the field exists, but the "inside" components are in violent change and motion, in BOTH directions. Again, that's been known and in the literature since 1903.

But that does not appear in the hoary, old, seriously flawed electrical engineering, which continues considering the static potential and static field as a "frozen waterfall" analogy.

Neither does the solution for the Source of the input Energy to the Source Charge, nor the form of that Energy input, appear in the CEM and EE models. The CEM and EE models do not even model the Vacuum Energy Flux Exchange with the Charge, much less a Broken Symmetry in that exchange.

So they do not even model what powers every electrical circuit. Period. Never have.

If one wishes to tangle with true Negative Resistor, then one should just try to answer ( in classical EM theory based only on electrical engineering ) the question of from where and how a given charge gets the EM Energy that it continuously pours out, establishing its fields and potentials and their Energy across the universe at the speed of light? If one cannot answer that question in classical EM and electrical engineering, one will then have to go read some physics, because it's been answered for 45 years in particle physics, and a Nobel Prize was awarded to Lee and Yang in 1957 for their having predicted the basis for that solution. Broken Symmetry was such a tremendous revolution to all of physics that the Nobel Committee moved with unprecedented speed in awarding that Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang. They strongly predicted it in 1956 - early 1957, and Wu and her colleagues proved it experimentally in early 1957. The Nobel Prize was then awarded to Lee and Yang in that same year, in Dec. 1957 -- a nearly unprecedented action.

It would be nice if the electrical engineering departments would walk across the campus to the particle physics departments, and find out just what Broken Symmetry means for the Source charge and the Source Dipole. Voila! Suddenly they would find out what actually powers every circuit and System, and that EM Energy --- all of it, every joule of it -- comes from the seething Vacuum Energy via the asymmetry of the Source charge or Dipole. They haven't seemed to be able to do that arduous little walk across the campus in 45 years. And they have not changed their model to include the Active Vacuum and the Broken Symmetry in the Active Vacuum Exchange with the flash-charges and the Dipole.

If one cannot solve the Source charge problem and present that solution ( as CEM and EE cannot do ), then one is guilty of implicitly assuming that every charge in the universe is a perpetual motion machine, freely creating ( what appears to be ) Energy from nothing. That is precisely the case for every electrical engineering department, professor, and textbook today, and it always has been.

It is quite humorous -- and downright eerie -- that the very fellows so critical of the overunity researchers as a "bunch of perpetual motion nuts" also implicitly assume, albeit unwittingly, that every charge in the universe is a perpetual motion machine, freely and continuously creating Energy out of nothing. Poetic justice.

Further, the charge exhibits giant, continuously increasing negentropy, because the Energy it continuously pours out at a steady and unwavering rate is not disordered but perfectly ordered. At a given radial distance from the Source charge, the associated field has a specific value and direction, the associated static potential has a specific value, and the associated vector potential has a specific value and direction, deterministically and perfectly ordered.

Well, the very notion of entropy always had a serious flaw anyway. It pre-assumes that a negentropic operation at least equal to whatever the entropy is, must have first occurred. Otherwise there could have been no order in the first place, to SUBSEQUENTLY disorder.

And the solution to the Source charge problem provides the answer of where all that negentropy first comes from, to continuously produce the negentropy ( order ) that is later disordered in entropic processes.

So the mere existence of electrodynamics and its giant negentropy and increasing order of the fields and potentials being poured out of the Source charges destroys any notion of absoluteness in the second law of thermodynamics ( the law of continual increase in disorder, or continuously increasing entropy. )

It has long been recognized that the second law ( which is based on statistical mechanics ) does not apply to the single ion, charged particle, atom, molecule, or group of molecules. At the microscopic level, all reactions are reversible because the equations are reversible. So things can run backwards as well as forward at the microscopic level, which is a form of time-reversal. In a "running backwards" situation, if macroscopic, then an ordinary resistor would act as a true Negative Resistor ( and so it does, if you feed it negative Energy which is time-reversed Energy. ) My new book, just coming off the presses, uses that fact to explain cold fusion, and we give the specific reaction equations producing the excess deuterium, tritium, and alpha particles --- as well as explaining the strange and anomalous instrumental problems encountered for some years in rigorous electrolyte experiments at U.S. Naval research facilities at China Lake.

But it has also long been accepted somewhat dogmatically that, well, the irrevocably apply to MACROSCOPIC phenomena and size. Some things recently have happened to upset or "bother" even that standard answer.

First, Denis Evans et al. of the National Australian University have rigorously proven that, contrary to previous assumptions, reactions can "run backwards" at up to micron ( colloidal ) scale, and for up to TWO SECONDS. Now that's within easy switching range for modern circuits and processes. So all of a sudden it becomes important. The nanobots being widely developed just now in nanotechnology at close to molecular size will thus experience abrupt periods of "running backwards" and so they will not work at all in the same manner as their much larger robots. The reference on the Evans work is G. M. Wang, E. M. Sevick, Emil Mittag, Debra J. Searles, and Denis J. Evans, "Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Time Scales," Phys. Rev. Lett., 89(5), 29 July 2002, 050601. A good article to read on what it all means, is Steven K. Blau, "The Unusual Thermodynamics of Microscopic Systems," Physics Today, 55(9), Sep. 2002, p. 19-21.  There are other comments on the Evans et al. work; you can take your choice based on the smugness and dogma used in the comments.

The individual charged particle, being microscopic ( including even an ion in a solution ) comes under the reversible criterion and therefore is appreciably "immune" to the second law. So one is not too disconcerted to find it "running backwards" and pouring out real Energy, at last for a short time. In short, one is not surprised that it produces giant negentropy, FOR A SHORT TIME. What is surprising ( and bewildering to classical EM and to the classical thermodynamicists ) is that the charge produces negentropy CONTINUOUSLY, for any length of time. So it produces continuously increasing NEGENTROPY.

There are other areas that are also known and recognized to violate thermodynamics, including in the large macroscopic realm. Several of these are listed on p. 459 of Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, 1998, corrected printing in 1999. Quoting p. 459: "Some of these areas are

(1) "... rarefied media, where the idea of local equilibrium fails. The average Energy at each point depends on the temperature at the boundaries. Important astrophysical situations belong to this category."

(2) "...strong gradients, where we expect the failure of linear laws such as the Fourier law for heat conduction. Not much is known either experimentally or theoretically. Attempts to introduce such nonlinear outcomes ... have led to 'extended thermodynamics'."

(3) "...memory effects which appear for long times ( as compared to characteristic Relaxation Times. ) ...non-equilibrium processes may have 'long time-tails'..."

Forefront scientists are attempting to extend thermodynamics at present, to include ( hopefully ) some kind of explanation for these areas.

But what is important is that the Energy continuously poured out by every magnetic or electrical charge ( as a true Negative Resistor, extracting unusable Energy from the Vacuum and pouring it out in usable EM form ) forms perfect order, perfectly correlated to that charge, to any macroscopic size one wishes. Just pick a size and wait long enough for the speed of light to reach that radial distance, and you will have a volume of that radius that has been filled with perfectly ordered EM Energy from that Source charge. The original charges in original matter in the universe have been doing that for 14 billion years, and they are still going. And their perfectly ordered fields and potentials reach across the entire observable universe.

So every part of electrodynamics --- the source charge, the field, the potential, and every joule of EM Energy in every EM field and potential, whether in space or in matter --- is in total violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and TO ANY MACROSCOPIC SIZE LEVEL ONE WISHES, INCLUDING ACROSS THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE when one accounts the perfect and continually increasing order of the fields and potentials and, therefore, their Energy.

So there you have your true Negative Resistor in every charge in the universe. ( DO not confuse this with silly tunnel diodes putting "some Energy back to the circuit power source in reverse against the voltage" while eating lots more Energy from the Power Source where the Energy is being expended, which allows the work to be done, ) And all EM Energy -- in every field, potential, and circuit, and System --- comes directly from the Vacuum, via the Broken Symmetry of the Source charge.

Don't underrate the importance of the Source charge problem. Either one has to have a solution to that problem, or else one must surrender the conservation of energy law in its entirety, since it is totally falsified by every charge in the universe unless the Source charge solution from particle physics is included in one's model. For the EE model and CEM, that would require drastic surgery and extension of the models. Actually, much better Systems of electrodynamics are already created and available in particle physics.

As we said, classical electrodynamics and electrical engineering do not include the Active Vacuum in their model, nor is the potential of Broken Symmetry accounted for in the exchange between the Active Vacuum and every charge and Dipole in the circuit. Since those models do not include the actual Source of any or all the EM Energy in a circuit or System, then those models do not include what powers an electrical circuit or System ( some of the very Energy that is extracted from the Vacuum via the Source Charge's Broken Symmetry. )

That was all excusable until 1957. Today it is inexcusable, once one points out the solution sitting there in particle physics.

And if you really wish to get at this matter of Energy flow really well, then read the original papers of Heaviside and Poynting, who independently and simultaneously in the 1880s discovered the propagation of EM Energy in space, after Maxwell was already dead. Before that, the concept did not even appear in physics. The primary Energy flow connected with a circuit actually flows outside the conductors, in the external space, or Vacuum. A tiny bit of it ( the Poynting component ) is diverged into the circuit conductors to power the electrons. The huge remainder ( the Heaviside nondiverged Energy flow component, which is in circulation form ) is not diverged into the circuit at all, but is just wasted and ignored. Lorentz in the 1890s stated that, well, it has no physical significance ( because it does not do anything ), so he originated a clever little integration trick to get rid of any accountability for it. The abandoned and unaccounted Heaviside component may have a magnitude up to a trillion times or more, of the magnitude of the Poynting component.

I am working on a paper that points out some very startling and completely unexpected things that are indeed "done" by that long neglected Heaviside component. It plays a major role in the appearance of the various ice ages upon the Earth, and creates the excess gravity that is holding the arms of the spiral galaxies intact ( Heaviside himself recognized the gravitational implications of his extra component, and dealt with it in his notes, but did not live to publish it. ) The notes were found in 1957 ( curious coincidence! ) and published by one of the learned societies. If applied properly, the Heaviside component also plays the major role in producing the mysterious antigravity that is accelerating the expansion of the universe; I explain that in my forthcoming book, just now coming off the presses. The Bohren-type experiment ( with a so-called "Negative Resonance absorption of the medium" ) is also an experiment routinely done by nonlinear optical departments. It outputs 18 or so times as much Energy as is input. There are some other important contributions of the Heaviside component that I will include in the paper, which will require another two or three months to finish. However, my main point is this: When the long-unaccounted --- ARBITRARILY excluded! --- Heaviside energy flow component is re-accounted, then every generator and battery and dipolar power Source in the universe already pours out enormously more EM Energy than the mechanical shaft energy input to the generator, the chemical energy dissipated in the battery, and so on. All of them always have. One can experimentally demonstrate the existence of that long-neglected component, by a Bohren-type experiment. See Craig F.Bohren,"How Can a Particle Absorb More than the Light Incident On It?" American Journal of Physics, 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327. Under nonlinear conditions, a particle can absorb more energy than is in the light incident on it. Metallic particles at ultraviolet frequencies are one class of such particles and insulating particles at infrared frequencies are another. See also H. Paul and R. Fischer, {Comment on "How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?'}," Am. J. Phys., 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 327. The Bohren experiment is repeatable and produces COP = 18.

Anyway, you have true Negative Resistor everywhere you turn: in every charge in the universe, and also every power Source, if you re-account for the long-neglected Heaviside nondiverged Energy flow component associated with every field/charge and potential/charge interaction.

Tom Bearden


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US Patent #6392370

John Bedini and Thomas Bearden Have been working on these Systems now for over 30 years. One is driving his car and keeps crossing the same River over and over. Then the light bulb in your head goes on, and you begin to think, "what does this mean?" It's Nature's Open System".

The very next thing to do is stick a paddlewheel into the River, and this is where we should stop, for we have just created an Open System to the paddlewheel. If you do not take small pulses, everything from the shaft to the generator to your load is in a Closed Path, while the River is "FREE" and "OPEN". What Electrical Engineers do is take the flow of the River and bring it back to power the paddlewheel, and pumping the hell out of the paddlewheel to keep the River moving. "This implementation of the classical process actually destroys the natural equilibrium by Closing the Loop." With a classical type of System you WILL NEVER GET A COP of >1. The ultimate Source is a "FREE" and "OPEN" System of Nature. "We walk around in this System every day and fail to see how it works." What does this mean for electrical circuits? It classical terms, it means you can never collect anything that you do not pay for, for you are forever pumping that River. The Universe is an Open System, a continually running river. All you must do is find where to put the paddlewheel and then not Close the Loop.

John Bedini

Kron, Gabriel. Now a value E of the Negative Resistances, at which the generator current becomes zero, represents a state in which the System is self-supporting and has a continuous existence on its own without the presence of the generator, as the Negative Resistances just supply the Energy being consumed by the load. ( If the circuit contains inductors and capacitors, the circuit oscillates at its resonant frequency. ) � When resistance is positive, Energy is drawn from the Source, and when there is a Negative Resistances, Energy is cycled back to the Source. At current = 0, the circuit neither gives nor takes Energy and, theoretically, the generator may be removed.� Gabriel Kron, �Electric circuit models of the Schr�ger equation,� Phys. Rev. 67(1-2), Jan. 1 and 15, 1945, p. 41.

Kron, Gabriel. "...the missing concept of "Open-Paths" (the dual of " closed-paths" ) was discovered, in which currents could be made to flow in branches that lie between any set of two nodes.  (Previously � following Maxwell � engineers tied all of their open-paths to a single datum-point, the 'ground.')  That discovery of open-paths established a second rectangular transformation matrix... which created 'lamellar' currents..."  "A network with the simultaneous presence of both closed and open paths was the answer to the author's years-long search."  Gabriel Kron, "The Frustrating Search for a Geometrical Model of Electrodynamic Networks," Journal unk., issue unk., circa 1962, p. 114 (111-128).

Kron, Gabriel.   "When only positive and negative real numbers exist, it is customary to replace a positive resistance by an Inductance and a Negative Resistance by a Capacitor ( since none or only a few Negative Resistances exist on practical network analyzers. )"
Gabriel Kron, "Numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations by means of equivalent circuits." Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Mar. 1945a, p. 173.

So this is what Kron is saying:

< When the generator current becomes zero the circuit is self-supporting as the Negative Resistances just supply the Energy consumed by the positive resistances. When the resistor current is positive, the Source pumps the overunity Energy into the Natural Vacuum, and this is known as a �Closed-Path� and, when the resistor current is negative, the Natural Vacuum pumps an equilibrium overunity Natural Vacuum Energy into the Collector, and this is known as an �Open-Path.� This discovery of Open-Paths establishes a second rectangular transformation matrix... which created 'lamellar' currents. Such circuits manifest inductors as having a positive resistance and capacitors exhibiting a Negative Resistance.

That the light runs itself without any power from the primary Source is proof that what Kron said is true.


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I must stop right here and say, Thomas Bearden and I have been friends for 20 years during this time we have been the best of friends through thick and thin, and I always will be Tom's friend forever. You only in your life time have two or three friends that you can trust with your life and Thomas Bearden is the one. I enjoyed building everything on the bench that had to do with Tom's theories, and with a little work "THEY WORK". But you must learn how to think outside the box. As to this day Tom and I always keep discussing this field, and it will never end.

The Year was 1983," So you do not know your history"

This was more than 19 years ago

Thomas Bearden 1983

Toward a new electromagnetics Part 4:

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On this slide, we show a theoretical scheme which several researchers have discovered and used to build simple, Free Energy motors.

In this scheme, we drive an ordinary DC series motor by a two wire System from an ordinary battery. The motor produces shaft horsepower, at � say � some 30 or 40 percent efficiency, compared to the power drained from the battery. This much of the circuit is perfectly ordinary.

The trick is getting the battery to recharge itself, without furnishing normal power to it, or expending work from the external circuit in the process. ( This is the paddlewheel in the River. )

To do this, recall that a charged particle in the �hooking� del-phi River moves itself. This is true for ions, as well as electrons. We need only make the del-phi in the correct fashion and synchronize it; specifically, we must not release the hose nozzles we utilize to produce our del-phi River, or wave. ( The Charge moves itself. )

The inventors who have discovered this have used several variations, but here we show a common one.

First, we add an �Energizer� ( often referred to by various other names, ie Collector ) to the circuit. This device makes the del-phi waves we will utilize, but does NOT make currents of electron masses. In other words, it makes pure 0-dot. It takes a little work to do this, for the Energizer circuit must pump a few charges now and then. So the Energizer draws a little bit of power from the motor, but not very much. ( The Energizer is a unit that does not develop current, only Potential, and no drag on the DC motor. )

Now we add a switching device, called a controller, or PWM, which sends intermittent power to the motor in pulses. During one pulse, the battery is connected and furnishes power to the motor; during the succeeding pulse, the battery is disconnected completely from driving the motor and the output from the Energizer is applied across the terminals of the battery. ( This device is an updated motor speed controller, or PWM )

If frequency content, spin-hole content, etc. are properly orchestrated by the Energizer, then the ion movements in the battery are reversed and, thus, flash-charge the battery. Remember, these ions MOVE THEMSELVES during this recharge phase. Specifically, we are NOT furnishing ordinary current to the battery, and we are NOT doing work on it from the Energizer. ( It is simply a timed process of Pulses and switching sequences. )

If the components are built and timed properly, the System has a greater potential than was expended by the battery during a Pulse cycle.

To prevent excess flash-charging of the battery and, therefore, overheating and destroying it, a Battery Charge sensor is added which furnishes a feedback signal for the controller to regulate the recharge time per �Power Off� Pulse. In other words, the System is not self-regulating.

The relation between power pulses and recharge pulses is shown on the graphs at the bottom. Note that regulation may decrease the time of recharge application of the del-phi River.

This System, if properly built and tuned, will furnish Free Shaft Energy continually, without violating the conservation of energy. Remember that the del-phi condition across the battery terminals means that space-time becomes curved and laws governing a conservation of energy no longer apply.

Again, this System is consistent with general relativity and with the fact that 0-field alone can drive a situation relativistically. We have deliberately used these facts to accomplish direct engineering. Our Free Energy comes from shifting phi-flux � the Energy of the universal Vacuum Space Time � directly into ordinary Energy for our use. Thus we draw on an inexhaustible Source, and our device is no more esoteric than a paddlewheel in a river. The only difference in this case is, we have to be clever enough to open specific channels ( or paths ) and divert the river with a timed process of pulses and switching sequences. ( The "Open and Closed Paths", Kron )

(c) Thomas E Bearden, 1983

So what Thomas Bearden is saying, which applies to ( Kron ), Is that a Motor is a variable inductor in a "CLOSED PATH, " and this is all normal EM. However, when the motor is disconnected from the battery by an independent Collector this situation then becomes an "OPEN PATH" to the Energizer, which is Electrostatic in Potential and no Magnetic flux cutting is needed. In other words, the Energizer applies no load to the Motor. This System is backwards to Kron's" statement but does the same thing. NOTE: The electrostatic Energizer must pump a few electrons during this process, the fewer the better. ( They are called 'lamellar' currents )



(c) John Bedini 9-15-2002




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